Euphrates Shield : Problems And Prospects For The US

Turkish Minister for European Union Affairs Ömer Çelik reacted strongly to the comment by the United States authorities about the fighting between the Turkish army and the Syrian opposition in the …

Source: Euphrates Shield : Problems And Prospects For The US

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Euphrates Shield : Problems And Prospects For The US

Alexandr Bovdunov

The Turkish operation in northern Syria came to a decisive point. The US Defense Department has expressed concerns that under fire from the Turkish army were Kurds from YPG units, trained and supported by US special units. The United States had previously used the Kurds as its main striking force. The Wall Street Journal even declared that the “Turkish push south of its border endangers the US forces “. Brett McGurk, the special envoy of the US president expressed his concerns over the Turkish operation:

“We want to make clear that we find these clashes – in areas where ISIL is not located – unacceptable and a source of deep concern … We call on all armed actors to stand down … the US is actively engaged to facilitate such deconfliction and unity of focus on ISIL, which remains a lethal and common threat. “

Pentagon spokesman Peter Cook said the United States insists on an immediate cessation of fighting between the Turkish army and the Kurds in the Syrian town of Jarablus area in the north of Syria.

Turkish Minister for European Union Affairs Ömer Çelik reacted strongly to the comment by the United States authorities about the fighting between the Turkish army and the Syrian opposition in the north of Syria, which they consider to be unacceptable. According to officials, no one has the right to tell Turkey, where and against whom to fight.

“No one has the right to tell us if we can fight against a terrorist organization, and some of them do not pay attention”, said Minister of Turkey, the European Union Affairs Omer Celik.

This statement is clearly against the United States and shows a rift between former allies. Turkey has forced the United States to support its action against ISIS, but all support immediately disappeared when there was a question about the Turkish operations against Kurdish separatists. As we expected previously, the Turkish operation in the Northern Syria is a challenge for the United States.

Representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in the information war in Syria on the side of the United States were quick to take a critical stance towards Turkey’s actions. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which is based in London, said 20 more people were wounded in the air raid targeting a farm near the village of al-Amarna and 15 near Jub al Cousa.

The US clearly wanted to avoid clashes between Syrian Kurds and Turkey, however, but both actors seem to not be fully controlled, thus showing the weak position of the US . Kurds despite the declaration of withdrawal to the west of the Euphrates control the strategically important town of Manbij, which earlier the US insisted that they take. Turks continue to move to the south and strike at the Kurds. The developing situation for the United States is severe. They would like to have both forces as allies, however the escalation makes it impossible.

From a tactical point of view, the US difficulties create an additional window of opportunity for Damascus, Moscow, and Tehran. If the US is bogged down in the decision of insoluble Turkish-Kurdish contradictions, it can be less involved in other processes, including the key to the fate of the country – battle for Aleppo. Turkey distracts the US from the Aleppo battle by also switching to a confrontation with the Kurds, and bringing to the war with them a large part of its militants.

Moreover, the exchange of Turkish presence in Aleppo for Kurds may be part of the Russian-Turkish agreement. The discovery of a new front allows Ankara to withdraw their proxies from Aleppo without losing face and solves the problem of their further use and utilization by those who do not want to see them in Turkey.

Russia and Iran have more room to maneuver and negotiate with Turkey on the fate of the Syrian Kurds, Moscow was not able to redirect them to itself, and Tehran perceives their position on the federalization of Syria as a threat in fighting with its own Kurdish separatists.

But the US is losing significantly. As a further escalation of the conflict will put to question the Control over Manbij, which means direct and open clashes of Kurds supported by the US with Turkish forces. However, the US still has several options out of the situation:

1. Continue to balance between Turks and Kurds. This is the least advantageous variant, although the least risky. This balancing act is no longer able to stop the conflict. Distrust in the US grows from both sides.

2. To support the Kurds against Turks. This means a conflict with Turkey and its possible withdrawal from NATO. This is too high a price for the control over a part of fractured Kurdish movement.

3. Understanding the importance of Turkey, the US will try to shift to Ankara. US will be in danger of losing control over the Kurds, however, but may try to support Turkish troops and Islamists controlled by Turkish forces to fight against Damascus. In the event of the capture of the city of Al-Bab they will move directly against the Syrian troops that encircled Aleppo. In this scenario Russia, Iran, and Syria will face a serious problem.

Turkey has concentrated a serious military force on the Syrian border, which has a force of 55,000 and consists of 3 armored brigades, 3 infantry brigades, 2 brigades of special operation artillery units, and an aviation brigade with 110 helicopters. In the event that the US cannot prevent Turkey from its anti-Kurdish operation, it may try to guide this force against Damascus, using their agents of influence in Turkish leadership and armed forces. The desire to help ‘besieged’ Aleppo will be exploited.

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Moving Targets: Decision To Re-Draw Neighbourhood Borders in Baghdad Raises Concerns

Ask those Iraqis living in Shaab for their thoughts about the split though and those who had heard about it, said they didn’t think much of it. Most were of the opinion that it was not going to have a major impact on the reality in their neighbourhood; it wasn’t going to somehow magically improve state services to Shaab, nor did they think it would result in any kind of improved security situation.

Source: Moving Targets: Decision To Re-Draw Neighbourhood Borders in Baghdad Raises Concerns

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Moving Targets: Decision To Re-Draw Neighbourhood Borders in Baghdad Raises Concerns

Ask those Iraqis living in Shaab for their thoughts about the split though and those who had heard about it, said they didn’t think much of it. Most were of the opinion that it was not going to have a major impact on the reality in their neighbourhood; it wasn’t going to somehow magically improve state services to Shaab, nor did they think it would result

Source: Moving Targets: Decision To Re-Draw Neighbourhood Borders in Baghdad Raises Concerns

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Moving Targets: Decision To Re-Draw Neighbourhood Borders in Baghdad Raises Concerns

Niqash-Ibrahim Saleh

Earlier this month the Baghdad provincial council voted to separate the Shaab neighbourhood in north eastern Baghdad from a neighbouring area, Adhamiyah. Most of the locals living in Adhamiyah are Sunni Muslims whereas most of those in the Shaab neighbourhood are Shiite Muslims. So naturally the decision has given rise to accusations of sectarian motives on the part of the local council.

There are also concerns that this is just the first small step along the road to further similar changes in Iraq: Such a decision could make separating Iraqi suburbs and even provinces on a sectarian basis easier in the future. In turn, locals worry that this is a creeping phenomenon that could see the whole of Iraq changing slowly, into three different regions: Shiite, Sunni and Kurdish.

The decision is going to improve the security situation, Mohammed al-Jabrawi, a senior member of the council’s security committee, who also belongs to the Shiite Muslim-oriented Badr party, explained. There won’t be any negative side effects either because the security here will still be controlled by Baghdad Operations Command, the military unit dedicated to the capital’s security, he said.

The decision was apparently also motivated by planning considerations. Many of the capital’s neighbourhoods and district borders were drawn up when forecasts said the city would only ever have around 2 million inhabitants; there are now closer to 8 million.

Ask those Iraqis living in Shaab for their thoughts about the split though and those who had heard about it, said they didn’t think much of it. Most were of the opinion that it was not going to have a major impact on the reality in their neighbourhood; it wasn’t going to somehow magically improve state services to Shaab, nor did they think it would result in any kind of improved security situation.

Shaab has been the location of many terrorist events and is also well known for high levels of organized crime and kidnapping. But whether separating from the next-door Sunni Muslim neighbourhood was going to change that was unclear.

The map of Baghdad is being redrawn.

“People don’t really expect things to change for the better after a decision like this,” commented Amir Hassan, a Shaab resident.

The decision to separate Shaab from Adhamiyah may also be a step toward making Shaab part of the huge, Shiite-majority Sadr City district. There has been talk about making Sadr City a province in its own right. And geographically at least Shaab has always had more in common with Sadr City than Adhamiyah anyway. Only one street separates them whereas Shaab is separated from Adhamiyah by a highway.

Besides criticisms about the potentially sectarian nature of the decision, the new district borders are also causing concerns that other parts of the capital, and even other parts of the country, could be “annexed” according to their population’s sectarian make-up.

For example, locals in nearby Fallujah are scared that some of their areas could be taken away and annexed to the Abu Ghraib district, which is part of Baghdad but borders on Anbar province, of which Fallujah is part. This would bring outlying parts of Fallujah under the control of the Baghdad Operations Command too, ending what has been a shared responsibility. And locals worry that it is not just security concerns behind these administrative changes, but also political objectives.

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Some 9,000 refugee children reported to have disappeared in German

DW
Germany’s federal police says the number of missing refugee children has doubled since the start of the year. Most of the children are aged between 14 and 17-years-old.

Germany’s Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt) has confirmed that by July 1, 8,991 unaccompanied refugee children and young people had been reported missing.

The figures, which were requested by the German daily “Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung,” showed the number of migrants no longer in contact with authorities was already higher than for the whole of last year. The figure has doubled from January, when 4,749 refugees were known to be missing.

Although most of those who disappeared are teenagers, 867 of them are under 13 years old.

Criminal link played down

Amid fears that young unaccompanied migrants are vulnerable to grooming by criminal gangs, the BKA said it had no concrete evidence that this was happening in large numbers.

“In many cases, it’s not like the children left without a plan. They wanted to visit their parents, relatives or friends in other German cities or even other European countries,” a BKA spokeswoman told the paper.

http://dw.com/p/1JLA4

Inside Europe: Fighting for modern refugee children

The police authority said it was possible that the increase could be partly explained by young people registering more than once with German authorities, for example after moving to a new area of the country.

The BKA said it was hard to keep tally as many migrants arrived with no identity papers and because they may spell their name several ways.

Numbers rising

In February, the European police agency Europol estimated that at least 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children have gone missing after arriving in Europe. More recently, it said the number is now considerably higher.

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) warned several months ago that unaccompanied minors from conflict zones are “by far the most vulnerable group among the refugees.” They are sent first to Europe, with their parents planning to join them at a later day, leaving them to fall prey to criminals.

Pressure on Merkel remains

On Sunday, German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s deputy accused his boss of underestimating the strain of integrating around a million asylum seekers over the past year.

Vice -Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel told broadcaster ZDF that rather than catchphrases – referring to Merkel’s repeated use of the slogan “We can do this!”- “We should be setting the right conditions so we can actually manage this.”

Despite the criticism, Germany has been praised for its efforts to help migrant children integrate into the country.

Germany’s Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) said Sunday it is expecting far fewer asylum seekers this year compared to 2015.

“We are preparing for 250,000 to 300,000 refugees this year,” Frank-Juergen Weise, the head of the office, told “Bild am Sonntag” newspaper.

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FBI says foreign hackers penetrated state election systems

Michael Isikoff Chief Investigative Correspondent Yahoo

The FBI has uncovered evidence that foreign hackers penetrated two state election databases in recent weeks, prompting the bureau to warn election officials across the country to take new steps to enhance the security of their computer systems, according to federal and state law enforcement officials.

The FBI warning, contained in a “flash” alert from the FBI’s Cyber Division, a copy of which was obtained by Yahoo News, comes amid heightened concerns among U.S. intelligence officials about the possibility of cyberintrusions, potentially by Russian state-sponsored hackers, aimed at disrupting the November elections.

Those concerns prompted Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson to convene a conference call with state election officials on Aug. 15, in which he offered his department’s help to make state voting systems more secure, including providing federal cyber security experts to scan for vulnerabilities, according to a “readout” of the call released by the department http://mobile.reuters.com/article/idUSKCN10R1QN.

Johnson emphasized in the call that Homeland Security was not aware of “specific or credible cybersecurity threats” to the election, officials said. But three days after that call, the FBI Cyber Division issued a potentially more disturbing warning, entitled “Targeting Activity Against State Board of Election Systems.” The alert, labeled as restricted for “NEED TO KNOW recipients,” disclosed that the bureau was investigating cyberintrusions against two state election websites this summer, including one that resulted in the “exfiltration,” or theft, of voter registration data. “It was an eye opener,” one senior law enforcement official said of the bureau’s discovery of the intrusions. “We believe it’s kind of serious, and we’re investigating.”

The bulletin does not identify the states in question, but sources familiar with the document say it refers to the targeting by suspected foreign hackers of voter registration databases in Arizona http://www.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/arizona/2016/06/29/security-concerns-shut-down-parts-arizona-secretary-states-elections-site/86523404/ and Illinois. In the Illinois http://thesouthern.com/news/local/state-and-regional/hackers-penetrate-illinois-voter-registration-database/article_6e58f325-367f-5f8e-aa78-f0b8224865cd.html case , officials were forced to shut down the state’s voter registration system for ten days in late July, after the hackers managed to download personal data on up to 200,000 state voters, Ken Menzel, the general counsel of the Illinois Board of Elections, said in an interview. The Arizona attack was more limited, involving malicious software that was introduced into its voter registration system but no successful exfiltration of data, a state official said.

FBI Flash PDF : boe_flash_aug_2016_final

The FBI bulletin listed eight separate IP addresses that were the sources of the two attacks and suggested that the attacks may have been linked, noting that one of the IP addresses was used in both intrusions. The bulletin implied that the bureau was looking for any signs that the attacks may have been attempting to target even more than the two states. “The FBI is requesting that states contact their Board of Elections and determine if any similar activity to their logs, both inbound and outbound, has been detected,” the alert reads. “Attempts should not be made to touch or ping the IP addresses directly.”

“This is a big deal,” said Rich Barger, chief intelligence officer for ThreatConnect, a cybersecurity firm, who reviewed the FBI alert at the request of Yahoo News. “Two state election boards have been popped, and data has been taken. This certainly should be concerning to the common American voter.”

Barger noted that that one of the IP addresses listed in the FBI alert has surfaced before in Russian criminal underground hacker forums. He also said the method of attack on one of the state election systems — including the types of tools used by the hackers to scan for vulnerabilities and exploit them — appear to resemble methods used in other suspected Russian state-sponsored cyberattacks, including one just https://www.hackread.com/world-anti-doping-agency-site-hacked/ this month on the World Anti-Doping Agency.

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HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN USA

Human trafficking— using force, fraud or coercion to exploit a person for the purposes of commercial sex or to work against their will—happens in the United States. But it’s not always easy to recognize the victims or understand the scope of the problem.

We recently examined some of the challenges the federal government faces in combating human trafficking—and here’s what we found.

An underreported crime with many faces

Figure 3: Office for Victims of Crime “The Faces of Human Trafficking” Public Awareness Campaign Poster

gao-16-555_fig3

The victims of human trafficking are diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, and sexuality, and include :

  • women, men, and transgender individuals;
  • adults and children;
  • and citizens and foreign nationals.

Victims are often already vulnerable, such as missing or runaway youth or someone with a drug addiction. And the perpetrators can be almost anyone: family members, intimate partners, acquaintances, or strangers. They may act alone or within a criminal network. Traffickers may lure victims with false promises—such as offering a seemingly legitimate job—and force victims to remain in the situation with threats, abuse, or by withholding identification and immigration documents.

But, given the clandestine nature of trafficking, nobody really knows how prevalent it is. While federal efforts are underway to collect data, most of what is known is from information reported to law enforcement or hotlines—and these crimes are likely underreported.

Building cases against human traffickers

Even when trafficking is spotted and reported, law enforcement may not be able to build a case. It is difficult to distinguish human trafficking from legal activities, such as child care or restaurant workers, or from other crimes (such as prostitution). Victims may also distrust law enforcement and be unwilling to cooperate, fearing retaliation from the trafficker or not seeing themselves as victims. In fact, when U.S. Attorney’s Offices have had to decline human trafficking cases, the main reason was insufficient evidence.

Awareness about human trafficking can help fight it. So, some groups are taking steps to raise public awareness of the problem. The Department of Homeland Security, for example, is running its “Blue Campaign” to provide information to the public and training to law enforcement.

gao-16-555_fig4

HIGHLIGHTS

What GAO Found
Federal agencies have begun efforts to assess the prevalence of human trafficking in the United States and develop data standards and definitions to help facilitate prevalence studies. For example, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is sponsoring the Human Trafficking Data Collection Project, which seeks to inform the development of an integrated data collection platform regarding human trafficking victimization, establish baseline knowledge of human trafficking and victim needs, and support effective prevention and intervention responses. HHS, in consultation with key stakeholders, has developed draft data fields and definitions for human trafficking and expects to begin piloting the data collection effort in fall 2016. Further, the National Institute of Justice, within the Department of Justice (DOJ), has awarded grants for the development and testing of methodologies that could be used to estimate the prevalence of human trafficking.
Federal, state and local law enforcement officials and prosecutors GAO interviewed reported that investigating and prosecuting human trafficking cases is challenging for multiple reasons, including a lack of victim cooperation, limited availability of services for victims, and difficulty identifying human trafficking. Officials told us that obtaining the victim’s cooperation is important because the victim is generally the primary witness and source of evidence; however, obtaining and securing victims’ cooperation is difficult, as victims may be unable or unwilling to testify due to distrust of law enforcement or fear of retaliation by the trafficker. According to these officials, victim service programs, such as those that provide mental health and substance abuse services, have helped improve victim cooperation; however, the availability of services is limited. Further, officials reported that identifying and distinguishing human trafficking from other crimes such as prostitution can be challenging. Federal, state, and local agencies have taken or are taking actions to address these challenges, such as increasing the availability of victim services through grants and implementing training and public awareness initiatives.
GAO identified 42 grant programs with awards made in 2014 and 2015 that may be used to combat human trafficking or to assist victims of human trafficking, 15 of which are intended solely for these purposes. Although some overlap exists among these human trafficking grant programs, federal agencies have established processes to help prevent unnecessary duplication. For instance, in response to recommendations in a prior GAO report, DOJ requires grant applicants to identify any federal grants they are currently operating under as well as federal grants for which they have applied. In addition, agencies that participate in the Grantmaking Committee of the Senior Policy Operating Group are encouraged to share grant solicitations and information on proposed grant awards, allowing other agencies to comment on proposed grant awards and determine whether they plan to award funding to the same organization.
Why GAO Did This Study
Human trafficking—the exploitation of a person typically through force, fraud, or coercion for such purposes as forced labor, involuntary servitude or commercial sex—is occurring in the United States. Congress has passed multiple laws to help ensure punishment of traffickers and protection of victims. DOJ and the Department of Homeland Security lead federal investigations and prosecutions of trafficking crimes. The Departments of Defense, Labor, and State, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission investigate trafficking related offenses under certain circumstances, and take further action, as appropriate. DOJ and HHS award grants to fund victim service programs.
The Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015 includes a provision for GAO to review law enforcement efforts and grant programs to combat human trafficking and assist victims in the United States. This report discusses (1) federal efforts to assess prevalence of human trafficking (2) challenges agencies face in investigating and prosecuting human trafficking cases, and 3) federal grants and steps taken to prevent duplication. GAO reviewed trafficking data and agency documents, and conducted 32 interviews with federal, state and local law enforcement officials and prosecutors in four jurisdictions. We selected these jurisdictions based on the number of human trafficking tips they received, receipt of human trafficking task force funding and geographic variation. These officials’ perspectives cannot be generalized to all jurisdictions but they provide insights into anti-trafficking efforts.

Collaborating to stop traffickers in their tracks

Federal agencies, state and local law enforcement, and non-governmental organizations have taken a collaborative approach to combating human trafficking in the United States. Federal agencies such as the Departments of Justice, Homeland Security, Labor, and State play a key role in investigating and prosecuting offenders, training officials, and providing public awareness campaigns. At the local level, agencies and organizations help meet victims’ short- and long-term needs, such as legal and immigration services, employment and education assistance, food and clothing, and medical and child care.

To see law enforcement data on human trafficking investigations, arrests, and convictions, as well as details on the 42 federal grant programs that combat trafficking or assist victims, check out FULL REPORT:  HUMAN TRAFFICKING Agencies Have Taken Steps to Assess Prevalence, Address Victim Issues, and Avoid Grant Duplication

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“Daesh”WORLD……CHILDREN’ NEW WORLD

IS has been grooming, training and indoctrinating children for several years and has also widened its recruitment approach to include children, encouraging entire families to join IS.Children who have escaped have described the horror they have been through.“Some children were sexually assaulted as part of their training. Some were beaten by sticks. They slept on flea-ridden mattresses and were beaten and bullied if they faltered even for a second,” Horgan said.“IS executed children who showed signs of disillusionment or of missing their parent,” he added.

Source: “Daesh”WORLD……CHILDREN’ NEW WORLD

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“Daesh”WORLD……CHILDREN’ NEW WORLD

VOA

The chilling image of five children staring into the camera with guns in their upraised arms as five grown men dressed in orange jumpsuits kneel in front of them, about to be executed, was posted by Islamic State extremists almost as a badge of honor.

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According to the SITE counterterrorism website where the image was released Friday, the young boys were British, Egyptian, Kurdish, Tunisian and Uzbek — and featured in an IS video from Raqqa, Syria.

IS has increasingly featured children in its constant barrage of propaganda, a deeply disturbing sign of the extremist group’s profound level of psychological warfare.

The exact number of children who have been put through the Islamic State’s child soldier boot camp is unknown. The German magazine Der Spiegel quoted experts as saying about 1,500 boys were serving the militant group in Iraq and Syria.

One of the experts VOA talked with suspects there are that many in Iraq alone.

As the Iraqi Security Forces, with Kurdish troops and U.S.-led coalition support, converge on the IS stronghold of Mosul, there are growing concerns about what will happen to the children who have been forced to live under IS.

IS social media distributed photos in several languages of children holding placards in Islamic State territories offering “congratulations” on the deaths of Americans, apparently in reference to the Orlando mass shooting on June 12, 2016.
IS social media distributed photos in several languages of children holding placards in Islamic State territories offering “congratulations” on the deaths of Americans, apparently in reference to the Orlando mass shooting on June 12, 2016.

“There is no way we are prepared to manage the scale of what we see in front of us,” John Horgan, a professor at Georgia State University and an expert on terrorism and political violence, told VOA. “We are looking at a level of [child] mobilization that is unprecedented and increasing.”

Snipers and suicide bombers

According to Farah Dakhlallah, UNICEF’s Middle East and North Africa spokeswoman, child recruitment has increased across the Middle East, and the roles that children are recruited into are changing.

“In previous years, children were in support roles,” Dakhlallah told VOA by phone from Jordan. “But in the past two years, they are taking on much more active roles, carrying weapons, manning checkpoints, being used as snipers and as suicide bombers.”

In Syria, children are increasingly being used in armed and combat roles by different parties to the conflict, at times recruited as young as seven years old, Dakhlallah said.

“Often we think this is happening without parental consent,” she said. But there may be instances where the parents have been complicit, further complicating the psychological picture.

“I’ve been studying terrorism for 20 years; I have seen nothing like this,” Horgan said. “This is altogether different.”

Displaced children, who fled from the Islamic State violence, gather at a refugee camp in the Makhmour area near Mosul, Iraq, June 17, 2016.
Displaced children, who fled from the Islamic State violence, gather at a refugee camp in the Makhmour area near Mosul, Iraq, June 17, 2016.

Unprepared

While organizations like UNICEF provide a level of psychosocial services to children who have escaped the conflict, experts warn that some children may have been severely brutalized.

“I don’t think we have a real understanding of what these kids have been through,” Horgan told VOA. “We are only seeing the tip of the iceberg.”

IS has been grooming, training and indoctrinating children for several years and has also widened its recruitment approach to include children, encouraging entire families to join IS.

Children who have escaped have described the horror they have been through.

“Some children were sexually assaulted as part of their training. Some were beaten by sticks. They slept on flea-ridden mattresses and were beaten and bullied if they faltered even for a second,” Horgan said.

“IS executed children who showed signs of disillusionment or of missing their parent,” he added.

“These children did not emerge out of the ether in the last couple of months,” Horgan said. “[IS militants] have been grooming and indoctrinating kids for a few years now. I think it’s an investment in their future.”

А YouTube screen grab from an Islamic State propaganda video shows an IS recruiter with two child soldiers. Children as young as eight years old are reportedly being trained to serve in roles ranging from spies, to front line soldiers, to suicide bombers.
А YouTube screen grab from an Islamic State propaganda video shows an IS recruiter with two child soldiers. Children as young as eight years old are reportedly being trained to serve in roles ranging from spies, to front line soldiers, to suicide bombers.

UNICEF efforts

In Iraq, UNICEF says it is working with the Iraqi government to improve juvenile detention centers and programs for children in detention, including those on security-related charges.

The U.N. agency is also advocating for training front-line security forces on child rights.

But Amnesty International has criticized Iraq’s judiciary structure as weak and opaque, and security officials as barely coping with the flood of people fleeing IS control. Hundreds of males have already disappeared from unofficial security screening points.

Asked whether the humanitarian agencies were prepared for the wave of children who will be emerging from Mosul as security operations ramp up to retake the IS stronghold, Horgan had only one word to say:

“No.”

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