Ralph Underwager and the Cleveland child abuse inquiry released March 25, 2014 under a freedom of information request. Report on child abuse says: ‘Take seriously what they say’ …
Source: “Finlayson-Newman Report”
Ralph Underwager and the Cleveland child abuse inquiry released March 25, 2014 under a freedom of information request. Report on child abuse says: ‘Take seriously what they say’ …
Source: “Finlayson-Newman Report”
In June 2013, the US ambassador to Belgium, Howard Gutman, stepping down after being accused by the New York Post to have had sex with underage prostitutes priced. He denied, yet it generated and has not sued the New York Post, but he was not prosecuted nor the US, nor in Belgium. Anyway, it seems that child abuse is a ticket on the international political scene.
Source: CHILD ABUSE NETWORKS
(Schaarbeek Police, Jacqueline Smolders interview, March 18, 1997)
Smolders spoke about Le Stanley, a club in Brussels that organized sex orgies.
Smolders was virtually certain that the father of the murderer of Loubna Benaissa (Dutroux Affair) had been a member of Le Stanley.
Smolders testified: “In the club was a member whom I didn’t know by name but who was in the possession of a private airplane.
“He flew to Switzerland to get these films for Le Stanley.
“I know these films were flown from Sweden to Switzerland where the member in question went to pick them up.”
“One day, in 1969, this plane crashed over the province of Namur with all the pornographic material onboard.
“The police intervened and all the pornographic material was confiscated.
“That evening, however, Marcel Hofmans had all the the movies in his possession, because of the intervention of apparently influential persons in the judicial sphere of Namur…
“I don’t know the names of the persons who constantly protected him.
“I do know that it always involved very important persons, by their background, their wealth or social position.
“I’m talking about politicians, top-level army and police officers, judges and district attorneys.”
(Schaarbeek Police, Jacqueline Smolders interview – March 18, 1997)
Mary Porsont, who used to work at La Piscine, one of the clubs owned by Marcel Hofmans in the early 1990s, has also given a testimony that appears in the Dutroux files.
In the 1993-1994 period she worked for the labour union SETca (Syndicat des employés, techniciens et cadres) and the Socialist Party.
Among the people she got to know was a certain Richard de Groot.
De Groot soon introduced her to Roger Labarbe, the national chairman of the SETCa.
They offered her to come with them to sexual orgies, for which she would get a considerable compensation (she needed money).
Guy Coëme. Le Parti Sataniste (PS)
The three of them subsequently went to the swing club Hoeve Bornedries, which, according to de Groot and Labarbe, belonged to former defense minister Guy Coeme, who got burnt in the Agusta scandal (ELIO DI RUPO).
More frequently they would go to the private club La Lune des Pirates, which was later renamed La Piscine.
Porsont eventually ended up working at La Piscine.
About La Piscine Porsont testified:
“In the club I met magistrates, lawyers from the Court of Assisen, gendarmes, police officers, officers from the District Attorney’s police, but also surgeons and other people with money…
In Belgium, Member of Parliament Laurent Louis publicised a list of names that an ‘anonymous’ group sent to all parliamentarians in Belgium. The list was of all the people ALLEGEDLY involved in the Dutroux affair. Among the names listed: US General Michael Aquino (who has had an important role in military psychological warfare; involved in “Monarch” brainwashing; Councillor for Western Europe Chiefs of Staff) Paul Bonacci, victim of Monarch brainwashing, Willy Claes Secretary General of NATO in 1994 and 95, Elio di Rupo currently Belgian Prime Minister, André Cools , assassinated Belgian government minister... http://jeugdzorg-darkhorse. blogspot.nl/2013/03/no-faith-in-dutch-family-law.html
About La Piscine Porsont testified:
“In the half year I worked at La Piscine I did not see any pedophile activity.
“But I did hear enough about the bizarre sexual preferences of so called higher ups and that there were possibilities to organize orgies with children.
“A certain Eric and Nina asked me to approach those higher ups who came to us at La Piscine and left their phone number with offers of special evenings.
“Especially Nottebaert (‘a socialist politician who liked Sadism and Masochism’) but also quite a few ministers turned out to be very interested in those kind of evenings.
About La Piscine Porsont testified:
“At the union and the Socialist Party I learned a lot about their sexual preferences.
Elio di Rupo
“Elio di Rupo (currently prime minister of Belgium), for example, who had a relationship with Spitaels’s son.”
(Guy Spitaels was a top politician in Belgium.
According to the declaration of Dany Lefrant to the Belgian Judiciary: “Pink Ballets (orgies with underaged children) took placee with … SPITAELS Guy, at bar Le Cancan”.
Le Cancan was the bar where Elio Di Rupo, according to Cancan’s owners, went to pick up boys).
(ISGP – Belgian X-Dossiers)
The CIA and its friends are believed to be heavily involved with sex cults, new age groups, child abuse, satanic ritual abuse and mind control.
Boy from Charleroi in Belgium, near the home of Marc Dutroux, who allegedly worked for the security services. ( the world’s worst …)
Former Charleroi mayor and Walloon prime minister Jean-Claude van Cauwenbergh (who followed Elio di Rupo in this last position) reportedly has ties to child abuse networks.
The following is a 2004 letter written by Hans Laroes, editor in chief of the NOS News (one of the most respected news programs in the Netherlands), to the Council for Journalism:
“Already in 2000 top public official Joris Demmink attracted the attention of the research office of the [NOS] News.
“In march that year we did an investigation with the question if the Belgian Marc Dutroux Affair had tentacles in the Netherlands.
“It was the time that the Zandvoort child porn case had relit and the media was laying in front of the door of the Belgian Morkhoven workgroup.
“The name Joris Demmink had been given to me in conversations with detectives.
“These spoke about a 1998 investigation, ran from a very secret location in Utrecht: an investigation into a network of top public officials, two district attorneys (19 in total at the time in the Netherlands), a former minister, a former attorney of the Queen and a single professor who would have sex with underaged boys.
“The investigation had begun at the direction of the College of Prosecuter-Generals – instigated by the district attorney of Amsterdam, Vrakking.
“Demmink played an important role in that investigation. Detectives had suspected that this top public official had given information to one of the main suspects, the Amsterdam professor Van R., with whom he was friends. Because of that, the professor avoided prosecution, the detectives stated.”
(January 1, 2004, Hans Laroes, editor in chief of the NOS News, to the Council for Journalism.)
The letter recalled how in October 2003 both the Gay Krant and Panorama magazines had published an article about Demmink (not giving his name), who was Holland’s secretary-general of justice, and his apparent involvement in child abuse…
In recent days, it is again the issue millionaire pedophile Jeffrey Epstein, with that piquant detail that regularly carted Bill Clinton in his trips around the world in private Boeing. We also saw this story pedophile network in the White House …
In June 2013, the US ambassador to Belgium, Howard Gutman, stepping down after being accused by the New York Post to have had sex with underage prostitutes priced. He denied, yet it generated and has not sued the New York Post, but he was not prosecuted nor the US, nor in Belgium. Anyway, it seems that child abuse is a ticket on the international political scene.
We will revisit some eloquent case, it would, in my opinion, be considered not as the exception but as the rule in this environment. For the simple reason that the cooptation of elites is by the vice are in most cases, from what we can see. If DSK was able to get where he is, it is because we know how to make her happy, and it is then easy to ask some “services”.
The case of the pedophile ambassador
Gutman was posted to Brussels since 2009. Appointed by Obama, the Zionist had a distinguished political career counselor Democrats since Al Gore. He had been assistant director of the FBI , a specialist in intelligence-cons. Incidentally, he is one of the major donors of the Republican Party. He gave $ 500,000 to Obama and was appointed ambassador, buy what is called a function, just like in the Middle Ages.
And then in June 2013, an article accusing Gutman said to have resorted to prostitutes, including minors and therefore not consenting.
A wistleblower has dropped the case: Aurelia Fedenisn, former investigator of the Department of State US, denounced the suppression of several sexual cases (use of prostitutes) by Hillary Clinton  .
Eight cases involving senior officials of the Department of State (Foreign Affairs US) would thus fallen by the wayside. The investigation Gutman would in turn was halted in 2011 by order of the Under Secretary of State Patrick Kennedy, so that Gutman was able to stay in office.
Incidentally, it is interesting to note that the US sent a pedophile as a representative in a country that is a paradise paedo , led by a prime minister pedophile and a king (who abdicated a month after this scandal, actually) also pedophile.
In Belgium, it took two days to learn that no investigation has been opened Gutman . Yet we know that he was separating regular bodyguards to solicit prostitutes and children . Indeed, it seems that within the US Embassy, everyone knows.
As for Fedenisn, she was harassed when she unveiled the case. The lawyer’s office was a victim of burglary: three computers were stolen but no valuables.
Apparently the use of prostitute (e) s is endemic to the State Department.
But it is not only in the State Department we appreciate recourse to prostitutes, minor or major.
Recently, another scandal was hushed. We know the billionaire and lobbyist Jack Abramoff, who has installed a network of pedophilia and child trafficking off the coast of Indonesia, on the island of Saipan, which is under US control. This island is an area of total non-law, where all trades are flourishing, thanks to hard lobbying Abramoff to keep things well despite scandals moult.
Abramoff is one of the founding members of the International Freedom Foundation , an anti communist group finance guys like Henry Kissinger to spread “democracy” made in USA worldwide. We can consider it as a branch of the CIA.
In 2006, Abramoff was sent to jail several months for tax evasion and attempted bribery.
In 1985, we find him behind Citizens for America, an anti communist group set up by Reagen to fund the Contras in Nicaragua.
Abramoff and a deputy named Randy Cunningham  had set up a pedophile network closer to the White House, Congress and the Washington institutions. Orgies were often held at the Hilton Washington, because the area reserved for VIP’s very well kept and very discreet. The children arrived by car without anyone to see. But according to a former intelligence agent, the Ritz Carlton and the Sheraton were also used to pedophiles sessions with members of Congress or national reporters that they sought to compromise, especially after employees of Hilton began to have doubts about the activities of Abramoff in the hotel.
Abramoff was providing all types of prostitute (e) s, major or minor, male or female, gay or straight, to Congressmen, Senators, officials and journalists.
These guys were close to Mark Foley, Republican MP, former chair of the House of Representatives for missing and exploited children, who had to resign in 2006 when it was learned that he sent sexually ambiguous messages to young students who working as messengers in Congress. At the time, we spoke of “homosexual scandal”, so it was good to pedophilia.
They were also linked to Kyle Foggo , No. 3 of the CIA under Bush 2, indicted in 2007 for corruption because he had accepted an under-the-table to guide a CIA contract to the company of his friend longtime Brent Wilkes.
The case was hushed, and the judge investigating it, Carol Lam , was fired.
It was at the time going into the war of Bush 2, and one wonders if some representatives of the people who voted increased military appropriations for invading Iraq were not compromised in advance.
This network was, apparently, very provided figures. According to one of the victims of the network that was active at the time of Reagan and Bush 1, the “gonzo journalist” (include the zero level of journalism) member of the Hells Angels and Satanist Hunter Thompson , who went to Bohemian Grove  , was offered $ 100,000 for filming a snuff movie pedophile, in which a young boy was to be sacrificed. This victim had testified in 1999 at the trial of Paul Bonacci, a victim of Boys Town, the orphanage children turned into container for pedophiles elite networks.
The victim was arrested in 2005, and said that Ted Gunderson, a former FBI agent who posed as an informant and Satanic pedophile networks wanted him to stay in jail all his life. He says Gunderson also was involved in the pedophile ring which was intended to bribe elected representatives and senior officials. Gunderson also wanted to retrieve compromising photos that held that victim.
Apparently compromised networks have existed for 50 years in the USA. A Roy Marcus Cohn held a corruption network sex in New York in the early 50s.
A CIA agent, a certain Edwin Wilson, worked with Cohn in this network in Washington, but that did not succeed him, having spent 20 years in prison for selling 20 tons of C4 explosives to Libya, and has faced many trials. Wilson boasted of possessing a hundred companies in the US and Europe, as well as various properties around the world. He began working for the CIA in 1955, and quickly joined the stay-behind networks since funded the Corsican mafia to break strikes by dockers in the 60s.
At that time, it was enough to jam a type having a homosexual relationship to hold. But Cohn was also in pedophilia, especially with children provided by a satanic network that was known to send young boys here to New York personalities homes. Others were taken in Catholic orphanages, and were sent to the four corners of the country.
According to Anthony Summers, Cohn provided boys to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover in 1958. For the occasion, Hoover dressed as a woman and was called “Mary”. Detective James Rothestein, attached to the manners in New York, explained that “the work of Cohn was to bring the boys to military or parliamentarians who did not follow the program. Cohn brought their children and they ranged themselves behind him . Cohn told me himself. “
Cohn was a lawyer and defended some mafia, while advising presidents like Nixon or Reagan. While he has continued to type on gay, died of AIDS in 1986.
After Wilson was sent to jail, that’s another CIA agent who took over the network.
The case of pedo proxo friend of Clinton
Jeffrey Epstein was called a “mogul” employee of the bank Bear Stearns, which failed to force speculate rotten mortgages and was bought by JP Morgan in 2008 . Epstein was considered a great philanthropist especially since it was financing scientific research and police Palm Beach (which received frequent donations of $ 100,000).
Epstein was enough, since his job was to speculate for various clients.
All was well for Epstein, who frequented the great and the good in the evenings jet set, to date in 2005 when a woman comes to see the Florida cops telling Epstein prostitute her 14 years.
The girl followed Epstein indeed everywhere, to procure sexual favors, and his friends. Including Prince Andrew , brother of Prince Charles, with whom he landed on a base of the Royal Air Force with his private plane  . Or Ghislaine Maxwell, who served as anvil . But above all, she is the daughter of media mogul Robert Maxwell (he had notably the Daily Mirror), agent of Mossad which was liquidated in 1991  .
One of its missions was to recover spyware created the USA , built into a seemingly innocuous software called Promis and served sneak around the world. Israeli recovered and diverted it Promis software, before selling it to other countries.
Maxwell was also a chief mafia, pro money laundering through tax havens and head of a nebula 400 companies. Among its revenues, there was indeed the drug money.
Epstein had true friends: even after he admitted use of “child prostitutes”, Prince Andrew went to visit him at his home in New York.
Epstein had the largest residence in Manhattan, an apartment on Avenue Foch, a huge ranch in New Mexico and other properties, as to its fleet of private aircraft, the best part was a Boeing 727 fitted expressly for him.
This is Ghislaine Maxwell who brought Epstein with his VIP friends in England. She introduced him to Prince Andrew, during holidays around the world. TR7S “people”, it has even been invited to the wedding of Chelsea , the daughter of Clinton in June 2010 (when she was told the US justice she returned to England to help his sick mother).
In 2005, therefore, a mother arrives at the Palm Beach cops to tell them that his 14 year old daughter was taken to the villa Epstein to have sex against $ 300. When the cops showed up at Epstein, they found plenty of hidden cameras, full of sex toys and lots of pictures of naked little girls on the walls. They estimated that at least 40 girls aged 13 to 17 lived the same story: come for “massages” they were sexually assaulted. Some said began “massages” at age 13 and then have dozens of sex, even hundreds, with Epstein.
But thanks to his well-placed friends, Epstein was left free after confessing to two misdemeanors and spent 13 months in jail, and his accomplices were granted impunity. While in principle, it should have been sued for sexual exploitation of minors  . Apparently, he abused a teenage girl a day when staying in Palm Beach. Anyway, Virginia Richards said she began to speak publicly following this ridiculous punishment.
Virginia Richards, one of these “juvenile prostitutes” everything balanced in the press three years ago, in 2011. She explained that Epstein had formed to be a sex slave for him and his friends, within the royal family.
Richards says it’s Ghislaine Maxwell who approached him offering to work for a rich man who was looking for a masseuse. As an interview, she had to make a streap tease in the villa Epstein. She touched $ 200 per “erotic massage”.
For her, it lasted four years, its 15 to 19 years of age, and sexual abuse did not begin until two years ago when Epstein asked him to come to his island in the Caribbean. From there, she said she was given to men between 40 and 60 years on the island or in New Mexico ranch.
At its third meeting with Prince Andrew, Virginia Richards was 18. Epstein told her she “was” too old “for him.
We also learned that Bill Clinton was also a guest Epstein . At least, until his arrest in 2008 . Clinton visited several times on the Caribbean island, as well as Al Gore, his vice president. The one who sold us the story of CO2 and global warming while creating hedge funds on the rights of that CO2. It has also started the same time in the early 2000s.
During these retreats Epstein Island, Richards said he saw other teens, who were not there to Epstein, since it was she who took care. According to another sexual orgies were held there regularly.
Epstein other visitors, but in New York: the senator George Mitchell , member of Bilderberg who was sent Obama to the Middle East for several years. Incidentally, he is a member since 1995 of the Executive Committee of Disney , and was elected chairman of the management committee in 2004 . And Ehud Barak, former Israeli prime minister.
Commissioner, Satanist and pedophile Peter Mandelson and his Brazilian partner, also in the address book Epstein.
It would be interesting to know whether there were hidden cameras in Epstein properties in New York and the Caribbean. It would be interesting to get your hands on the book in which Epstein was compiling its relations with teenage girls  .
Among the guests Epstein, one could still count on Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, the magician David Copperfield (who was married to supermodel Claudia Schiffer) Woody Allen, the governor of New Mexico Bill Richardson (who Epstein received largesse for his electoral campaign), or on the billionaire Donald Trump, used the villa in Palm Beach. And no one in this little world seemed to be surprised by the presence in their teenage social gatherings.
Virginia Richards said she also met Naomi Campbell on his yacht in the south of France, and that is a friend of Marshall and Ghislaine, she said, a prostitute.
In orbit Epstein, there was still a certain Nadia Marcinkova, it would be fetched at the age of 14 with his family in Yugoslavia in order to make his sex slave  . Officially, it was the “assistant” Epstein and visited more than 70 times during his few months in prison. In reality, it was also rather an anvil of little girls for Epstein . According to the victim, she cheerfully participated in orgies and lesbians had inclinations. Once a “French friend” Epstein had brought three French girls 12 years as a “birthday gift” for him.
A third woman, a certain Sarah Kellen, also played the role of anvil, and also visited Epstein in prison. Apparently she managed the teen harem Epstein in Palm Beach. Since the case, she dyed her hair, changed its name and continued to climb the ladder to high society. And she went out with a personal assistant to Epstein, then with a racing driver .
Some Adriana Ross still playing the same role anvil. She was questioned as part of the investigation, including whether Prince Andrew had consumed minor. At the time, this model aged 27 refused to answer any questions.
But many people used to supply Epstein in fresh meat, since one of his victims said he gave her $ 200 for each girl brought it into fillets.
In the folder, also cites a Jean-Luc Brunel , who was the co owner of a modeling agency in Miami, MC2. Practice to target young people a bit clueless. Moreover, the agency today has branches in New York and Tel Aviv . The modeling agency was used, according to some accounts, to recruit victims for “massages” Epstein and his friends. Some of his phone calls to offer little girls to Epstein leave no doubt about the activities of Brunel.
little girls come from Latin America, Europe and the former USSR, who were far from all speak English, were recruited to Epstein, and a large part of them worked for MC2.
Apparently Brunel, who also visited Epstein in prison, received a million dollars from him when he opened MC2 in 2005. Since then, the agency launched a few models who have their little success.
Brunel was considered addicted to coke, which jumped on the girls he had under his responsibility in his modeling agency. In the late 70s, Brunel already had a modeling agency in Paris, Karins, became Karin . It has been described as “dangerous” who “knew exactly what girls looking disturbed.” Even the founder of the Elite agency  , John Casablancas, said that the Brunel would end up in jail. According to him, Brunel and two other types lying around in boxes and put the drug into the glass daughters.
At the time of the Epstein case Brunel owned several apartments in New York, where he hosted and “praised” the girls to clients. All Brunel’s legal costs were paid by Epstein. As well as those of Sarah Kellen, its drivers Visoski Larry and Larry Harrison, Nadia Marcinkova, Ghislaine Maxwell and all its employees. And this little world has religiously kept silent during the investigation and trial.
 It was also mentioned the case of Hillary Clinton’s security guards who were beating prostitutes in the hotel where Clinton was sleeping. We remember the accusations, many saying that Hillary Clinton is pedophile and likes to fuck girls.
 This has created a mini scandal when the case was stale, because clearly it was an injustice. Ghislaine Maxwell was also on the plane, it seems. After the landing, they were in one of the royal family properties at Sandringham.
 It would be dropped from his yacht off the Canary Islands. According to some, this would be the Mossad was behind his death. Mossad would have spun him 400 million pounds for him to save his media empire, as Maxwell had access to Thatcher, Reagan in the Kremlin and elsewhere …
 However, the 40 victims have sued civilly and he had to negotiate arrangements every time.
 The said book was stolen by a servant Epstein who sought to sell the $ 50,000 to lawyers for the prosecution, which earned him 18 months in prison for obstructing justice (that is more than Epstein has done!). The guy had even taken an insurance policy in case Epstein attempt to remove the book. And he said, be very afraid of Ghislaine Maxwell. According to the book, minor raped all over the world, including Paris. In this book, Bill Clinton is cited as a “Doug Bands”.
 Epstein had a collection of books to learn how to draw sex slaves, such as “Training with Miss Abernathy: A Workbook for Erotic Slavs and Their Owners”, or “SlaveCraft:
Roadmaps for Erotic Bondage – Principles, Skills, and Tools “…
 Elite is also not alien to its practices, if one believes that Karen Mulder said on a plateau TV in 2001 that politicians pay to be accompanied by models of the agency, and that she herself had been raped by the leaders of the agency. Following this, she was sent to a psychiatric hospital and this passage was edited out. In fact, Karen Mulder probabelement is a victim of mind control trauma since childhood. Behind the Franklin scandal in the US, there are also e modeling agency, still active. And it also reminds the Jean-Michel Baroche in Tunisia .
The recent surge of religious extremism along with the phenomenon of suicide bombing is relatively new to the people of Pakistan. A gradual increase in the radicalization of society has been witnessed since the 1980s; however, at that time it was not accompanied by the same level of political violence and brutality which is currently evident in suicide bombings across the country. According to the Pak Institute for Peace Studies (PIPS) security report in 2006, 657 terrorist attacks took place, leaving 907 people dead and 1,543 others wounded. Pakistan faced 60 suicide attacks during 2007, which killed at least 770, besides wounding another 1,574 people; in 2008, the country saw 2,148 terrorist attacks, which resulted in 2,267 fatalities and 4,558 wounded1. In only the first six months of 2009, 465 people were killed and 1,121 wounded in 36 suicide bomb attacks2. People are trying to make sense of this new reality of terrorism/religious extremism and crafting the meaning of the phenomenon within their own broader understanding of politics at the global, national and local level.
Pakistan‟s decision to become an ally and the front line state in the war against terrorism declared after the 9/11 terrorist attack on World Trade Center and the Pentagon in USA, turned the country into a central stage where the war on terrorism is now being fought. Pakistan had to take a u-turn on its policy of support to religious Jihadi groups under the extreme pressure and threat of „with us or against us‟ from the United States. Subsequently when the government tried to bring these militants under its control, it triggered a reaction among the religious groups and jihadi organizations (who had been enjoying the support of the establishment in the past) and pitched them against the government and its security forces. They started challenging the writ of the government by attacking civilians and security forces through the use of suicide bombers. The militants belonging to various groups and ideologies started networking with one another on the face of pressure from the government to stop cross-border interference. Nearly forty Taliban groups formed Tehreek-e-Taliban under the leadership of Baituallah Mahsud on 14th of December.3 Those militants identified themselves as Taliban claimed that their main objective was to expel the American and NATO forces from Afghanistan and to enforce Sharia in Pakistan. In response to the government‟s effort to stop their involvement in cross-border terrorism in Afghanistan and providing protection to foreign militants, Tehreek-e-Taliban unleashed a reign of terror in the country and claimed the responsibilities of many suicide bombing incidents in which thousands of people were killed. Taliban are normally equated in public perception, with terrorism in Pakistan.
Pakistan‟s role in War on Terrorism has serious social, economic, and political implications for the country.
Pakistan is paying a huge price in human and economic terms for playing a role of a frontline state in the war on terror. There is hardly any systematic count available to assess the total loss of human lives (combatants, civilians, and security forces). However, in the response to a parliamentary question, the Interior Minister, Rehman Malik informed the National Assembly that in the year 2008-2009, 2,686 people were killed in 1,367 terror strikes4. This number does not include the estimated loss of human lives, (terrorist and civilians) caused by the military operation. Also this does not include those got injured and disabled as a result of terrorist and anti-terrorist encounters. The life of people living in conflict areas has been totally disrupted. As a result of the government‟s decision to conduct military operations against the militants, more than 30 million people were forced to leave their homes from the conflict ridden areas of Malakand. The local community and political structures in these areas have been completely dismantled due to the political hold of terrorist groups. The economy of the country has also lost momentum and suffered an estimated loss of US$ 35 billion since 2001-2002.5
Any conflicts whether natural or man-made have multiple and differential impacts on men and women as their experience of conflict is mediated through their gender. Women are socially positioned as subordinate to men. They do not have equal access to opportunities, resources and power. Due to their lower social and economic position, they are more vulnerable have the least capacity to cope with the impact of conflicts, human and natural disasters. It is well documented by researchers from the experiences around the world that women‟s vulnerabilities are exacerbated in conflict situations. Women face much harsher conditions during displacement and in camps due to various forms of gender based violence i.e. trafficking, kidnapping, forced marriages and sexual harassment.
Several research studies conducted in the areas of peace, conflict and wars across the world show that not only the impact but the perceptions and perspectives of men and women of conflicts are also fairly gendered In general, women are perceived as passive victims of wars/ conflicts who do not play any active role in initiating or participating in wars and conflicts. However there are plenty of examples that show that women are not only the victim of wars and conflicts but they also play an active role as combatants and supporters of wars and political violence.
In Pakistan, women are the neglected category in the analysis of the War on Terrorism and the growing religious extremism and militancy.. Men and women both are affected by growing militancy/Talibanization in Pakistan, however, thjeir experiences are distinctly different from each other. There is hardly any significant effort is being made to document the gender differentials of the impact of the war on terrorism. Since the impact of religious militancy is different on men and women, therefore, it is likely that the understanding and prescriptions for counter-terrorism may also be different.
Presently, the only reference to women is made when girl‟s schools are destroyed by militants in FATA and Malakand District or when a video was shown on the electronic media in which the Taliban were flogging a woman. Women are viewed as passive victims of Talibanization. It is generally ignored that women are capable of playing the role of both an active agent in resisting Talibanization as well as the promoters of Talibanization in the country. The incident of Lal Masjid is a case in point where women played an active role as front line soldiers to promote a radical religious agenda. Women are being actively recruited to madrissas by various religious political outfits. It is important to understand the social and political conditions in which women move towards joining radical Islamist groups and under what circumstances they oppose radical politics.gendered role, perceptions and the impact of the war on terrorism.
The current phenomenon of religious extremism/terrorism/Talibanization in Pakistan is often traced back to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s. Pakistan, as a front line state of the US, supported „jihad‟ by setting up training camps on its soil, inviting Islamist militants from all over the world and facilitated them to wage a war against Soviet forces in Afghanistan. These militant religious groups who received immense training and financial support from the Pakistani establishment later on emerged as a force on its own with its own political agenda. Our assertion is that the phenomenon of Talibanization in Pakistan is not mono-causal and cannot be explained through the singular exogenous factor of Soviet-Afghan war alone. It is a multi-causal phenomenon and must be seen and understood in its totality. It is imperative to investigate what was the ideological base that existed in the country prior to the Soviet-Afghan war and 9/11 on which the US was able to build a jihadi culture/infrastructure. What was the ideological and political motivation of Pakistani militants and the state, willing to fight America‟s proxy war in Afghanistan?
To understand the multifaceted nature of terrorism/Talibanization in Pakistan, we need to go back into the history of the sub-continent to uncover the roots of radicalization in the region in general and in Pakistan in particular. Only the more informed understanding of the nuances and complexity of the phenomenon of radicalization will gave us the conceptual tools to develop an effective counter terrorism strategy.
Root of Radicalization in Indo –Pak Sub-continent
Islamist movements have been using the notion of Jihad and Muslim Ummah around the world to promote their political agendas. The concept of Jihad in Islam is fairly complex. It essentially works at three levels. Jihadun Nafs is about purifying one‟s own soul, the second level is the Jihad against injustices through words and lastly physical Jihad in the cause of Allah. The latter concept of Jihad is called Jihad al-asghar while the former two are included in the category of Jihad al-Akbar. Throughout Muslim history the latter form of Jihad has been invoked for different political reasons in different contexts.
Aysha JalaI maintains that in the first century of Islam, Kharajites were the first who propagated physical Jihad against enemies of Islam. Umayyad (661-750) and Abbasid (750-1258) also used the concept of Jihad as armed struggle to justify wars they fought for temporal gains. She argues, “Muslim exegetes, legists, theologians and historians in different times and places have distorted the meaning of Jihad in the Quran”. (Jalal 2008)
In South Asia, Islam touched the shores of India for the first time in 712 A.D. The predominant religion in India was Hinduism that evolved in the sub-continent after the arrival of Aryans thousands of years ago. Hinduism is a combination of different sects, each sect having its religious texts and gods and goddess. Hinduism was not a centrally structured religion. However, Brahmans, the clergy of Hinduism, weakened this by dividing Hindu society into different strata. At the bottom of the caste system was the Shudder (untouchables) who had this subhuman status for many generations. This intolerant caste system was against social mobility.
Monotheistic Islam was introduced in the sub-continent by Sufis who came with Muslim conquerors from the North, Central Asia, Persia and Afghanistan. The Sufis presented a tolerant Islam that attracted thousands of people from the Hindu religion to Islam, especially the untouchable caste. Those who did not convert remained disciples because association with the saint was not based on religious identity. These saints brought a message of love and peace for humanity. This was the type of Allah that was introduced to India by Sufis (Ahmad, 2002:96).
During the sultanate and the Mughal eras (from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century), the spirit of accommodation of non – Muslims was high, coming to a climax during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar (1556 – 1605), who brought a policy of peace for all (sulhe-kul). Akbar‟s treatment of his subjects was free of oppression and persecution. He never tried to impose his faith upon his subjects. Karen Armstrong writes (2002) that Akbar‟s policies were wise because persecution could have led to revolt of the Hindu majority. Hindus were accommodated in armies as well in civil administration. Akbar‟s policies of accommodation went further and he abolished jizya tax and he himself turned vegetarian in order to avoid hurting the sensibilities of the large Hindu population. “Akbar was respectful of all faiths. He built temples for Hindus, and in 1575 set up a “house of worship” where scholars of all religions could meet for discussion” (Armstrong, 2008:125). Akbar‟s pluralism was different form the parochial communalism developing in some circles of orthodox ulema. Initially he was close to the ulema, but his interest was more in Sufism and falsafah (philosophy), than in Sharia, Akbar‟s rejection of all types of orthodoxy and policies of religious reconciliation earned him the wrath of a segment of the Ulema led by Sheikh Ahmad Sirhandi who accused him of being an infidel.
Sirhandi felt that Akbar‟s pluralism was derived from Ibn-al-Arabi‟s philosophy and was thus dangerous (Jalal, 2008: pp 373-8). He believed that only through the path of Sharia could unity with God be achieved. Sirhandi‟s views did not impress many Muslims in the first part of the seventeenth century. Shahjahan followed in the foot-steps of his Grand father Akbar. The Taj Mahal was the continuation of Akbar‟s policy of creating harmony between Hindus and Muslims. Hindu poets were part of Shah Jahan‟s court and books were translated into Sanskrit.
Ahmad Sirhandi was of the opinion that Akbar‟s policies were weakening Islam. He believed that both the religions were incompatible with each other and thus there could be no reconciliation. Sirhindi was strongly opposed to friendship with infidels, who should be “kept at arm‟s length like dogs”; and he also stressed that “no relationship should be established with Kafirs” (Jalal, 2008:38).
Before Akbar‟s policy of reconciling both faiths and his great grandson Dera Shikoh‟s efforts to amalgamate Sufism and the mysticism of Hindu religion, Sufis found Advaita Vedanta fully compatible with Islam. Aysha Jalal maintains that the pain taken by the Sufis to enter into dialogue with Hindus and to study and understand their religious traditions, won them the ire of the followers of Sirhandi, known as Shahudis. The exclusionist approach of Sirhandi was their only method to overcome the fear of being swallowed by the ocean of Kafirs. Sirhandi allowed the use of temporal power for implementing his Sharia – more of a sectarian nature – and phrased the slogan that “Sharia can be fostered through the sword” (Jalal, 2008: pp 31-32). Those influenced by Sirhandi‟s thinking justified waging war against kafirs while those opposed to his philosophy – wajudis – opted for tolerance and universal humanity and preferred Jihad-i- Akbar instead of Jihad Asghar (fighting with one‟s sword).
Muslim rulers have always used religion to solve their own problems of legitimacy and never hesitated to use the clergy to provide them justification whenever the temporal necessity was in clash with sacred law. Despite Muslims being a minority in India, India under the rule of the Muslims was considered as Dar-ul- Islam (an abode of peace where Jihad cannot be waged). It was only in the eighteenth century that Muslims began to see India as Dar-ul-Harb (abode of war) instead of Dar-ul-Islam due to the fear of the loss of Muslim sovereignty.
Several sultans of Delhi cultivated Ulemas and recognized their juristic authority in the face of stern opposition by the Sufis who contested these narrow interpretations of Islam. The Sufis were against despotic rulers in the Arab and Muslim world. When the opposition became stronger, Muslim rulers introduced a new class of clergy to counter the powerful influence of Sufis that previously had no prominence in Islam. Aysha Jalal argues (2008) that this was a beginning of “lucrative collaboration” between state power and the Ulema who entered into state employment.
During Aurangzeb‟s reign (1658-1707) when the Mughal Empire was in decline, he used religion as a card to solve his legitimacy problems and also to arrest the ever loosening grip of the Mughals on political sovereignty. He re-imposed Jizya along with double taxes for Hindus; their religious festivals were not attended by Aurangzeb. Their temples were razed to the ground. His sectarianism and intolerance manifested itself in his banning Shia celebrations in honor of Hussain (Armstrong, 2000:p.128).
While the Mughals had been successful in creating harmony between Hindus and Muslim in mainland India in the eighteenth century, the Sikhs and Hindus in the north of India were still fighting against the Mughals. Also in the North West, the Afghans tried to establish a new empire in India. This made the Muslims more apprehensive and insecure. This was the period in which the Muslim thinker Shah Wali Ullah made recourse to the philosophy of Sirhandi. He drew upon the position of Sirhandito address the new sense of Muslim insecurity about being governed by a majority of infidels. Shah Wali Ullah‟s views were a turning point in the history of Indian Muslims and continued to impact Muslims in the subcontinent well into the twentieth century. The influence of Abdul Wahab of Arabia on the teachings of Shah Wali Ullah is immense (Jalal, 2008:64). His adoption of the strict interpretation of Sharia turned Shah Wali Ullah into the founder of Sunni orthodoxy in India. His bias in favor of Arab culture and language made his particular interpretation of Sharia more exclusivist and narrow.
Shah Wali Ullah was of the view that the downfall of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 was a result of Shia and Hindu connivance against it. He was sternly opposed to the Hindu and Persian influences upon the Mughals (Jalal, 2008:41). Wali Ullah attacked the polytheistic influence upon the Indian Muslim Mughal court. Thus he rejunevated an orthodox Sunni version of Islam. Following Sirhandi, Shah Wali Ullah also advocated the deployment of state power to create Islamic order in the Indian sub-continent. A powerful Muslim polity was a necessity to purge all the social evils which were, according to him, opposed to the basic tenets of Islam. He thought of a military struggle against Marathas and Jats as supreme for the survival of Islam in South Asia. He also wrote letters to Muslims rulers and notables of eighteenth century India. .
In order to arrest the decline of Mughal power, Wali Ullah wrote to Najib-ud- Dawla and told him to embark on Jihad. The temporal power of the Mughals was receiving blows of a fatal nature from Marathas and Jats. By inviting Ahmad Shah Abdali to attack India in order to purge the ideas of Jihad with military expedition for temporal purposes (Jalal, 2008:54) Although Shah Wali Ullah draws on some facets of Sirhandi‟s philosophy yet he introduced many variations due to the Wahabi influence upon his thoughts. Wali Ullah is a point of reference for many as far as Jihad is concerned. He is also termed as the father of Muslim modernism. Aysha Jalal maintains that “Wali Ullah left an intellectual legacy that casts a long shadow over all subsequent explications of Jihad in theory and attempts to translate it into practice” (Jalal, 2008: pp15-16). She argues that later Islamic fundamentalist and Islamist movements were greatly influenced by the philosophies of Sirhandi and Shah Wali Ullah. Sayyad Ahmad Shaheed and Maulana Ismail Shaheed‟s movements against Sikhs were highly influenced by these ideas. The notion of Jihad had also been invoked on and off by Indian Muslims when fighting British colonialism.
Role of the Establishment in the Rise of Extremism in Pakistan
Role of the Establishment in the Rise of Extremism in Pakistan
Pakistan became independent from British colonial rule in 1947. With independence it inherited the disputes in Kashmir and the Durand line and thus the animosity with India and Afghanistan. Also it needed a unifying factor that could keep the ethnically diverse country together. So the state elite conveniently found Islam as a unitary factor and pro-state Islamists could promote their political agenda in the region. The Pakistani establishment started supporting militants fighting in Indian held Kashmir and provided them training in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistan was also seeking strategic depth in Afghanistan. Therefore, it has always been the policy of the establishment to patronize religious parties. This policy was at its peak during the Afghan Jihad (Hussain, 2005: 171).
In the fall of 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in order to support and rescue the fragile communist government of Afghanistan which was growing weak due to internal strife between the Percham and Khalq factions and the external resistance it was facing from certain deeply religious and conservative sections of Afghan society. The new agrarian, social and educational reforms introduced by the communist regime were deeply resented by the traditional Afghans.
It was a period of the cold war era when there was a struggle between two hostile super powers to contain and counter the influence of each other in every region of the world. Using regional powers for their own interests was part of the Cold War strategy. When the USSR invaded Afghanistan on Christmas Eve in 1979, the US immediately decided to help the resistance fighters to avenge what the Russians did to them in Vietnam. America wanted to make the Soviet involvement as costly as possible. They started supporting the Afghan resistance to the communist regime by providing them money and arms. In order to play this role in the region, the US desperately needed Pakistan to be on its side to fight its proxy war in Afghanistan. The Zia-ul-Haq regime that needed political legitimacy and American aid, decided to side with the US.
As part of the war strategy, the United States and its allies started encouraging Muslims from all over the world to join the Jihad in Afghanistan. Thousands of Muslims who were motivated and inspired by the religious works and views of Mohammad ibne Abdul Wahhab and the Egyptian Islamic radical Sayyed Qutb who was executed in 1966 for advocating his secular government‟s violent overthrow, left for Afghanistan to help the Afghan Mujaheedins in their fight against the Soviets. The US encouraged Islamic countries such as Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, other Gulf States and also the Chinese to assist them, both in a propaganda campaign and in covert action campaigns.
Pakistan became the hub of Jihadi activities during this period. Training camps for militants were established on its soil. Money and arms started flowing into Afghanistan and Pakistan. Foreign Arabs were not only busy fighting the Russians but were also bringing in a lot of money. As early as 1984, the CIA and its Saudi counterpart the General Intelligence Department (GID) were providing $200 million each respectively. With the passage of time it increased, “the CIA was giving $630 million in aid to the Mujaheedin in the fiscal year 1987, not counting the matching funds from Saudi Arabia (Rashid, 2008:113).
With adequate supplies of money, arms and zealous religious warriors at large, the only missing factor was proper training and religious indoctrination, which would have psychologically helped them to overcome the might of Soviet military power. The Pakistani intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) was to provide both the training and brain washing propaganda. Jihadi literature was produced in abundance and religious seminaries were used to ideologically brainwash and prepare students for Jihad. Thousands of madrissa students joined the Afghan Jihad. To acknowledge the critical role of religious madrissas in producing Jihadis for the Afghan war, tremendous financial support was given to them that resulted in the mushrooming of religious seminaries all over Pakistan in places like Peshawar, Akora Khattak, Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Balakot and in various places in South Punjab. “In 1971 there were only nine hundred madrassas in Pakistan. By the summer of 1988 there were about eight thousand official religious schools and an estimated twenty five thousand unregistered ones, many of them clustered along the Pakistan- Afghanistan frontier and funded by wealthy patrons from Saudi Arabia and other gulf states.” (Coll, 2004:151). The Jihadi groups such as Jaish-e-Muhammad (JEM), Harakat ul-Mujahideen (HUM) and Anjuman Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP) were given easy access to money, arms, military training etc. and they enjoyed full state patronage and support.
Thousands of Madrassa students trained and radicalized fought along side the Afghan Mujahideen. Equipped with American weapons and aided by Gulf countries they were able to defeat the USSR. After the withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Jihadis who came from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Algeria and Pakistan, returned to their own countries where they became a threat for the secular regimes as well as for the conservative monarchies. They branded them as Americans stooges and un-Islamic. They wanted radical Islamic ideology to be implemented, which was their main source of inspiration. Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), the Algerian Armed Islamic Group (GIA), Abu Sayyaf Group and many more believed in the revival of Islam and establishing a Muslim theocratic empire in the world. Freelance terrorists such as Khalid Sheikh Mohammad, Aiyaman al Zahawari, Mir Aimal Kasi, Youssef Ramzi and Osama Bin Laden were also inspired by the ideologies of these groups. Afghan Jihad according to Kohlmann (2006) provided a golden opportunity to global Islamists for the“unification of thought, purpose and infrastructure” Some of these Islamist fighters started operating independently, others joined existing organizations and some were able to make their own organizations. Al Qaeda was one such organization, created in 1988 by Abdullah Azzam and Osama Bin Laden. The latter masterminding one of the world‟s deadliest terrorist attacks on
the twin World Trade Centers.
After the 9/11 terrorist attack, the US government started pressurizing Pakistan to sever its links with militant organizations. Although Pakistan agreed to become a US ally in the “War on Terror” however, it continued to be reluctant to eliminate militants due to its own misperceived strategic interests.
In order to understand the reluctance of the Pakistani establishment in reversing its strategic depth policies, we need to understand as Ahamed Rashid asserts the genuine sense of insecurity; Pakistan suffers as a nation state. Pakistan is surrounded by hostile powers. With the exception of China to the north, Pakistan has Afghanistan and Iran along its western border and India to the east. All three states are not on good terms with Pakistan.
As mentioned earlier, Pakistan inherited the Kashmir dispute at the time of partition in 1947. Pakistan and India have fought two wars over the disputed territory of Kashmir. There is a strong Muslim resistance within Indian Kashmir which is opposed to Hindu rule. The Pakistani establishment has been encouraging and supporting some of the Jihadi organizations such as Harakat ul- Mujahideen (HUM) and Jaish-e-Muhammad (JEM) to fight along with Kashmiri insurgents.
Similarly Pakistan‟s Afghan policy has been based on denying India any advantage in Kabul. Pakistan, for almost a decade was able to block Indian influence in Afghanistan through the Indian hating Taliban. The Taliban, who were ethnically Pashtuns and were funded by Pakistan, provided a safe western border to Pakistan. After the American invasion of Afghanistan and the fall of the Taliban, the Northern Alliance emerged as the victorious party, which was supported by the US as well as by all of Pakistan„s regional rivals such as India, Iran and Russia. India immediately seized the opportunity to support Karzai. Ahmad Rashid maintains, “… India supported Karzai, established a lavish diplomatic presence in Kabul, funded aid programs, and according to Pakistani intelligence, sent Indian agents to train Baloch and Sindhi dissidents in Pakistan. Kabul had suddenly become the new Kashmir-the new battleground for the India- Pakistan rivalry. The Americans, obsessed by their hunt for bin Laden, could not understand the larger strategic picture, which was changing before their eyes” (Rashiud, 2008:110). Post 9/11, within the passage of few months Afghanistan turned from friend to foe for Pakistan. A strong and stable Afghanistan is always perceived by the Pakistani ruling elite as a threat to the very existence of Pakistani Pushtoon territory and one which was responsible for the Pashtunistan movement.
Pakistan has always made a policy of supporting insurgencies in both India and Afghanistan to protect its own strategic interests. Militant Jihadi organizations are viewed as strategic assets who have been fighting proxy wars for Pakistan in Kashmir and Afghanistan. Therefore, in post 9/11 Pakistani establishment was reluctant to take a u-turn on its previous „strategic depth‟ policy due to a change in America‟s policy.
After the US launched its war against terrorism, Pakistan was no longer in a position to openly fund and support Jihadi training camps and extend support to different extremist groups. It started working on a two-track policy. On the one hand Pakistan was helping the Americans in chasing Al Qaeda operatives and on the other they were trying to protect their beleaguered valuable strategic asset namely the Taliban. There is an abundance of evidence that shows that the ISI were allowing, harboring and protecting Al Qaeda and Taliban operatives in Pakistan.
However, when the Pakistan government moved against militant Jihadi groups under massive US and international pressure, they realized that these militant groups had become a force in their own right and had gone beyond their control. Various groups of the Taliban openly challenged the writ of the government, took the law in their own hand and started imposing their morality on the local population in tribal areas where they had political control. On the face of increasing pressure from the state to restrain their activities, these militant groups became united under the banner of Tehreek-e-Taliban led by Baituallah Mahsood. These extremist religious groups may have different motives but they all share the lust for political power and the aspiration to take control over the state. They were not ready to give up on their religious-cum-political mission willingly. This has finally led the government to launch a military operation in Swat, Malakand and FATA region that has resulted in the displacement of nearly thirty million people from the conflict zones.
Historical narrative helps in better understanding to tt the contemporary phenomenon of terrorism/Talibanization in Pakistan. However, the over emphasis on the exogenous factors at the expense of ignoring the internal the factors of poverty, poor governance and the structural weaknesses of the state that have contributed to the rise of Islamist‟s insurgency in Pakistan will not give us a holistic picture to counter terrorism/Talibanization effectively in its totality.
Gendered Perceptions of Terrorism/Talibanization in Pakistan
The surge of terrorism/Talibanization as a result of the War on Terror waged by the US post 9/11 is viewed differently by various sections of society in the country. These views are primarily determined by the ideological positioning of people whose identity as Brohi maintained is“…increasingly contested within newly vitalized groupings of traditionalists, revivalists, revisionists and Islamic modernists, Islamic feminists and so on” in Pakistan (Brohi, 2008:138). Some of the religious political parties (Jamat-e-Islami, JUI and Tehreek-e- Insaf) and certain sections of the electronic media are sympathetic to Taliban on political and religious grounds. They maintain that Talibanization is a reaction to US neo- imperialism/terrorism and to the unjust war that the US has waged in Afghanistan and Iraq. Also they believe that the Taliban are fighting for the implementation of Sharia in the country. This perception is actively promoted by the conservative section of the electronic media which has emerged in the recent past as an extremely powerful tool in shaping public opinion. The lack of understanding of the nuances and complexities of the phenomenon of terrorism combined with the lack of political maturity of media managers and anchor persons who conduct discussion programs in various electronic channels has created tremendous confusion among the nation on the subject. The way questions are framed in a dichotomous manner such as “Is this war on terrorism ours or America‟s war” does not allow people to think beyond the false dichotomy of War as Theirs/Ours.
Our assertion is that the vast majority of people rejects Talibanization and condemns the terrorist activities of militant groups. However, this assumption can easily be challenged as there is no research based evidence to prove or reject our claim. There is a paucity of sociological research which could inform us about the profile of those who support or reject Talibanization/terrorism in Pakistan. Similarly, there is no research on the gender differential in public opinion on terrorism/Talibanization. The study explores how men and women perceive the phenomenon of terrorism/Talibanization and understand its politics. People‟s support or resistance to counter terrorism/Talibanization actions depends on how they perceive the religious militancy.
The on-going war in the country against terrorism/Talibanization can not be allowed to be protracted as this will have disastrous effects on the social, political and economic life of the country. The government needs to establish its writ and rule of law in Taliban controlled areas. However, the war against extremists/terrorists can neither be fought nor won by the government alone without the full support of the entire nation. In order to win the hearts and minds of people, the government, first of all, must have a much deeper understanding of people‟s perception on the war on terrorism/Talibanization. What do people think of the terrorists? What are the gender differentials in men and women‟s perception of terrorism/Talibanization? How do they propose to counter terrorism? Understanding people‟s perceptions of the phenomenon of terrorism is a first and a necessary step in order to develop any national strategy that leads to build a public consensus on counter terrorism policies and strategies. Men and women may propose different solutions to combat terrorism/Talibanization due to gender differential in their experience of terrorism/Talibanization thus leading to gender differential in their perceptions and proposed solutions to restore peace in their lives.
As mentioned earlier there is a great deal of difference in the general public on the politics of terrorism/Talibanization. The varied public opinion falls mainly into two opposite categories. There are those who are sympathetic or support the Taliban. They view them either as Islamists fighting for the implementation of Sharia in the country or as a genuine anti-imperialist force or as representatives of oppressed classes who are challenging the dominance of the khawaneen, the landed classes in tribal areas. Hundreds of Maliks and Khans were killed and their properties were attacked by the Taliban in Waziristan, Bajaur and Swat (Riport, 2007:20).
Those who oppose the Taliban believe that the Taliban are not interested in Islam, they are a political force that is using Islam as a tool to capture state power. Some of them view Taliban as criminals and barbarians fighting for money and political power. These opposing views are expressed in the public domain through electronic and print media; however, there is no gender breakdown of those holding both positive and negative points of view on the Taliban.
We do not know where women stand in terms of viewing the Taliban and Talibanization?
Is there any gender differential in viewing the politics of terrorism/Talibanization?
Do women perceive terrorism/Talibanization as liberation or an oppression movement? These are some of the questions, this study endeavors to explore from a gender standpoint to fill the existing gap in knowledge.
Gender differentials in men and women‟s perception of terrorism/Talibanization was explored through asking quantitative and qualitative questions in the semi- structured interviews and in FGDs conducted with male and females from conflict areas.
Read Full Study http://pakistansocietyofvictimology.org/Userfiles/Gendered%20Perceptions%20and%20Impact%20of%20Terrorism.pdf
Lecture about how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and clarifying the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects. summary of their beliefs and practices. Why we must kno…
Lecture about how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and clarifying the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects. summary of their beliefs and practices. Why we must know the imminent danger of their beliefs, many of which still flourish among ignorant Muslims in the present time.
The warning of the Prophet (ﷺ) against them in many ahaadeeth, from them, his saying (ﷺ), “The Kharijites are the Dogs of Hellfire.”
ABOUT THE SPEAKER
Abu usamah was born in New Jersey in 1964. He embraced Islam in 1986 and went onto studying in the Islamic University of Madina for eight years where he graduated from the College of Da’wah and Usool-ad-Din.
sheikh abu usamah has been very active in da’wah since the day he embraced Islam. He has been the Imam of various mosques in the United States and in the United Kingdom. His zeal and eagerness in conveying the true message of Islam has lead him to many parts of the world, delivering lectures and seminars, as well as translating for many scholars and du’aat from the Arab world.
Abu Usamah has been blessed in studying with some of the greatest scholars of our time, to name a few, Shaikh Umar Fulaatah at the Rawdah of the Prophets Mosque, Shaikh Muhammad ‘Atiyyah Saalim (author of Tafsir ‘Adwaa ul-Bayaan’), Shaikh Abdullah Muhammad al-Ghunaymaan, Shaikh Muhammad al-Jaami, Shaikh Saalih al-Fawzaan and many more. He was also very fortunate to have spent two summers in intensive study under Shaikh Ibn Baaz and Shaikh Ibn Uthaymin.
Madeleine Albright, Joe Biden, Wesley Clarke, Clinton and his administration bombed Holy Serbian Christian land, and destroyed thousands of lives, and monasteries hundreds and thousands of years ol…
HUNDREDS OF SERB nationalists protested Vice President Joe Biden’s visit to the Serbian capital, Belgrade, on Tuesday by staging a rally in support of Donald Trump.
Published on Aug 16, 2016
Hundreds of Serbian nationalists protested on Tuesday against Joe Biden’s visit to Belgrade by chanting their support for Donald Trump.
“Vote for Trump! Vote for Trump!” the protesters, wearing T-shirts displaying an image of the Republican candidate, shouted as they gathered near the Serbian presidency building.
“Trump is the alternative to globalisation.” Seselj, head of Serbia’s Radical Party, told when asked why he was backing Trump.
Seselj’s Radicals are the third largest party in the Serbian parliament.
“Trump is the alternative to globalization. He will destroy old centers of power in the United States and he is a supporter (wants dialogue) of Russia, he is honorable, honest, and he returns pride to America. America has an alternative, it’s called Donald Trump. It’s time America washed of the stain of it’s honor and removed the Old political structure from power and refused globalism. Trump apologized for the bombing of Serbia and called it a mistake, he is a friend of the Serbian people,” said Vojislav Seselj, head of the ultranationalist Serbian Radical Party, told Reuters reporters at the scene. Seselj, who was acquitted in March of war crimes by a U.N. tribunal, also said that Serbian Americans should vote for Trump.”
Madeleine Albright, Joe Biden, Wesley Clarke, Clinton and his administration bombed Holy Serbian Christian land, and destroyed thousands of lives, and monasteries hundreds and thousands of years old, deliberately. They killed thousands upon thousands of White Christian Serbs (including dozens of small children; see: “Milica Rakic” and “The Murino massacre”), with the help of the Jewish globalists. They created a version ISIS in Bosnia (1992) and Kosovo (1999), ancient Serbian lands, and supported radical Islamists and terrorists and jihadists, which committed mass genocide over the Christian Serbian people with the support of the Clinton administration, USA and NATO. NATO intervention was not just morally wrong, anti-humanist, and anti-Christian, it was also using a false pretext of alleged “Serbian crimes”, which were later on refuted by the Hague tribunal and the same Swedish comity which originally stated that the crimes were existent. However, regardless of the alleged crimes, no country, or alliance of countries, had the right, under International law, to invade another sovereign country, without the UN Sec.Council’s approval. And the Clinton administration did just that. https://www.facebook.com/SerbsForTrump/?fref=ts
ON MONDAY, A HACKING group calling itself the “ShadowBrokers” announced an auction for what it claimed were “cyber weapons” made by the NSA. Based on never-before-published documents provided by the whistleblower Edward Snowden, The Intercept can confirm that the arsenal contains authentic NSA software, part of a powerful constellation of tools used to covertly infect computers worldwide.
The provenance of the code has been a matter of heated debate this week among cybersecurity experts, and while it remains unclear how the software leaked, one thing is now beyond speculation: The malware is covered with the NSA’s virtual fingerprints and clearly originates from the agency.
The evidence that ties the ShadowBrokers dump to the NSA comes in an agency manual for implanting malware, classified top secret, provided by Snowden, and not previously available to the public. The draft manual instructs NSA operators to track their use of one malware program using a specific 16-character string, “ace02468bdf13579.” That exact same string appears throughout the ShadowBrokers leak in code associated with the same program, SECONDDATE.
SECONDDATE plays a specialized role inside a complex global system built by the U.S. government to infect and monitor what one document estimated to be millions of computers around the world. Its release by ShadowBrokers, alongside dozens of other malicious tools, marks the first time any full copies of the NSA’s offensive software have been available to the public, providing a glimpse at how an elaborate system outlined in the Snowden documents looks when deployed in the real world, as well as concrete evidence that NSA hackers don’t always have the last word when it comes to computer exploitation.
But malicious software of this sophistication doesn’t just pose a threat to foreign governments, Johns Hopkins University cryptographer Matthew Green told The Intercept:
The danger of these exploits is that they can be used to target anyone who is using a vulnerable router. This is the equivalent of leaving lockpicking tools lying around a high school cafeteria. It’s worse, in fact, because many of these exploits are not available through any other means, so they’re just now coming to the attention of the firewall and router manufacturers that need to fix them, as well as the customers that are vulnerable.
So the risk is twofold: first, that the person or persons who stole this information might have used them against us. If this is indeed Russia, then one assumes that they probably have their own exploits, but there’s no need to give them any more. And now that the exploits have been released, we run the risk that ordinary criminals will use them against corporate targets.
The NSA did not respond to questions concerning ShadowBrokers, the Snowden documents, or its malware.
A Memorable SECONDDATE
The offensive tools released by ShadowBrokers are organized under a litany of code names such as POLARSNEEZE and ELIGIBLE BOMBSHELL, and their exact purpose is still being assessed. But we do know more about one of the weapons: SECONDDATE.
SECONDDATE is a tool designed to intercept web requests and redirect browsers on target computers to an NSA web server. That server, in turn, is designed to infect them with malware. SECONDDATE’s existence was first reported by The Intercept in 2014, as part of a look at a global computer exploitation effort code-named TURBINE. The malware server, known as FOXACID, has also been described in previously released Snowden documents.
Other documents released by The Intercept today not only tie SECONDDATE to the ShadowBrokers leak but also provide new detail on how it fits into the NSA’s broader surveillance and infection network. They also show how SECONDDATE has been used, including to spy on Pakistan and a computer system in Lebanon.
The top-secret manual that authenticates the SECONDDATE found in the wild as the same one used within the NSA is a 31-page document titled “FOXACID SOP for Operational Management” and marked as a draft. It dates to no earlier than 2010. A section within the manual describes administrative tools for tracking how victims are funneled into FOXACID, including a set of tags used to catalogue servers. When such a tag is created in relation to a SECONDDATE-related infection, the document says, a certain distinctive identifier must be used:
The same SECONDDATE MSGID string appears in 14 different files throughout the ShadowBrokers leak, including in a file titled SecondDate-3021.exe. Viewed through a code-editing program (screenshot below), the NSA’s secret number can be found hiding in plain sight:
All told, throughout many of the folders contained in the ShadowBrokers’ package (screenshot below), there are 47 files with SECONDDATE-related names, including different versions of the raw code required to execute a SECONDDATE attack, instructions for how to use it, and other related files.
After viewing the code, Green told The Intercept the MSGID string’s occurrence in both an NSA training document and this week’s leak is “unlikely to be a coincidence.” Computer security researcher Matt Suiche, founder of UAE-based cybersecurity startup Comae Technologies, who has been particularly vocal in his analysis of the ShadowBrokers this week, told The Intercept “there is no way” the MSGID string’s appearance in both places is a coincidence.
Where SECONDDATE Fits In
This overview jibes with previously unpublished classified files provided by Snowden that illustrate how SECONDDATE is a component of BADDECISION, a broader NSA infiltration tool. SECONDDATE helps the NSA pull off a “man in the middle” attack against users on a wireless network, tricking them into thinking they’re talking to a safe website when in reality they’ve been sent a malicious payload from an NSA server.
According to one December 2010 PowerPoint presentation titled “Introduction to BADDECISION,” that tool is also designed to send users of a wireless network, sometimes referred to as an 802.11 network, to FOXACID malware servers. Or, as the presentation puts it, BADDECISION is an “802.11 CNE [computer network exploitation] tool that uses a true man-in-the-middle attack and a frame injection technique to redirect a target client to a FOXACID server.” As another top-secret slide 05-Introduction-to-WLAN-CNE-Operations-Redacted puts it, the attack homes in on “the greatest vulnerability to your computer: your web browser.”
One slide points out that the attack works on users with an encrypted wireless connection to the internet.
That trick, it seems, often involves BADDECISION and SECONDDATE, with the latter described as a “component” for the former. A series of diagrams in the “Introduction to BADDECISION” presentation show how an NSA operator “uses SECONDDATE to inject a redirection payload at [a] Target Client,” invisibly hijacking a user’s web browser as the user attempts to visit a benign website (in the example given, it’s CNN.com). Executed correctly, the file explains, a “Target Client continues normal webpage browsing, completely unaware,” lands on a malware-filled NSA server, and becomes infected with as much of that malware as possible — or as the presentation puts it, the user will be left “WHACKED!” In the other top-secret presentations, it’s put plainly: “How do we redirect the target to the FOXACID server without being noticed”? Simple: “Use NIGHTSTAND or BADDECISION.”
The sheer number of interlocking tools available to crack a computer is dizzying. In the FOXACID manual, government hackers are told an NSA hacker ought to be familiar with using SECONDDATE along with similar man-in-the-middle wi-fi attacks code-named MAGIC SQUIRREL and MAGICBEAN. A top-secret presentation on FOXACID lists further ways to redirect targets to the malware server system.
To position themselves within range of a vulnerable wireless network, NSA operators can use a mobile antenna system running software code-named BLINDDATE, depicted in the field in what appears to be Kabul. The software can even be attached to a drone. BLINDDATE in turn can run BADDECISION, which allows for a SECONDDATE attack:
Elsewhere in these files, there are at least two documented cases of SECONDDATE being used to successfully infect computers overseas: An April 2013 presentation boasts of successful attacks against computer systems in both Pakistan and Lebanon. In the first, NSA hackers used SECONDDATE to breach “targets in Pakistan’s National Telecommunications Corporation’s (NTC) VIP Division,” which contained documents pertaining to “the backbone of Pakistan’s Green Line communications network” used by “civilian and military leadership.”
In the latter, the NSA used SECONDDATE to pull off a man-in-the-middle attack in Lebanon “for the first time ever,” infecting a Lebanese ISP to extract “100+ MB of Hizballah Unit 1800 data,” a special subset of the terrorist group dedicated to aiding Palestinian militants.
SECONDDATE is just one method that the NSA uses to get its target’s browser pointed at a FOXACID server. Other methods include sending spam that attempts to exploit bugs in popular web-based email providers or entices targets to click on malicious links that lead to a FOXACID server. One document, a newsletter for the NSA’s Special Source Operations division, describes how NSA software other than SECONDDATE was used to repeatedly direct targets in Pakistan to FOXACID malware web servers, eventually infecting the targets’ computers.
A Potentially Mundane Hack
Snowden, who worked for NSA contractors Dell and Booz Allen Hamilton, has offered some context and a relatively mundane possible explanation for the leak: that the NSA headquarters was not hacked, but rather one of the computers the agency uses to plan and execute attacks was compromised. In a series of tweets, he pointed out that the NSA often lurks on systems that are supposed to be controlled by others, and it’s possible someone at the agency took control of a server and failed to clean up after themselves. A regime, hacker group, or intelligence agency could have seized the files and the opportunity to embarrass the agency.